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不不过三个动作,游心于物之初

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不不过三个动作,游心于物之初

王璜生近年的实验性小说游象与线象体系,呈现了画画大师对华夏价值观水墨画中式点心线面几个主导要素的探讨与尝试,个中尤为对线的数十次试验和探究引人瞩目。作为一个世代书香并受过正规国画演练教育功力深厚的戏剧家,在变成大气动人心弦而又淋漓精致的名特别优惠国画小说之后,猛然不舍白天和黑夜地画起常常每种娃娃都能涂抹的三个又叁个圆形,意欲何为?

陪伴着文士画的兴起,当书法之写与美术之画的关联被强调之后,水墨画中的写的难题就变得越来愈首要了。士人画的倡导者苏子瞻说诗画本少年老成律,天工与清洁,他除了技法上的思虑,还应当抒发性灵,甚至对于诗、画意境方面包车型大巴虚构。元赵子昂更是将后边三个予以肯定,提到石如飞白木如籀,写竹还应八法通。等到西夏郑板桥、清末赵之谦、吴昌硕、齐纯芝,都已此意见的试行者,他们的书风极大程度影响了其画风。

游象类别文章是王璜生最新的写作。面前蒙受小说中那一团团情丝不绝、无从理清的线条,作为粉丝就像有超多话要说,又有横祸言的认为到。进而想起老子所言:道之为物,惟恍惟惚,可知恍惚之间的物象是道形象化的展示。对应那后生可畏多级的小说,认为王璜生此刻忽而跨过了太多的束缚,直陈对于道的了然。

在造型艺术中,线作为展现手段不仅仅在中华格局,何况在全体从India到东瀛的东方艺术中都占领特别鼓起的地位。中华夏族民共和国太古书法和绘画艺术能够说正是线的章程。通过流动的、富有生命伊斯美乐夫的线条来形容人物和实体的概况,线作为根本形态和展现手段在神州写生中三番一次了三千多年。中夏族民共和国人所运用的毛笔使线充满了以其余工具不能相比较拟的表现力和生机。对线的爱戴差非常的少是华夏价值观摄影的主题内容,所谓骨法用笔。然则,无论线也好,笔墨也罢,再首要它依旧是一个手法。骨法用笔是为气韵生动,以至会是明劝戒、著升沉、千载寂寥、披图可鉴。

书法和摄影的工具皆为笔墨纸砚。落笔于纸。笔行,书法出,美术显。在笔、纸接触的一霎那,以至随后所留下的印痕中,美术师的造诣,以至个性特征图穷匕见。以致足以说,正是对笔和纸关系的多年经营中,书法家和美术大师塑造了协和的法子世界。所以说:写,不唯有是一个动作,也是风度翩翩种存在状态,更是二个知识姿态。

中华夏族民共和国的点子一向在简化学物理象,意化学物理象中求变,一向不愿跳出形象概念的篱笆,就就像齐纯芝所说的直到被某个庸俗化的那句似与不似之间。他以致可以将鱼简约到独有三笔,多个黑点为眼睛,少年老成道淡墨为人身,但鉴于是画在莲花茎之侧,我们仍是可以辨别他画的是水中之鱼。哪怕中中原人民共和国画与书法再讲究线条的变型之美,也需附着于物象或字义,而得不到踏入纯情势的定义里。

线作为表现花招的要害意义在净土直至十六世纪尚未获得歌唱家充足认识。自十三世纪下半叶东方艺术传入欧洲,今世主义兴起,西方音乐大师对线的情态产生了相当大转移。康定斯基在《点线面》生机勃勃书中,试图将线与色彩以致人的主观后感想受相关联,大大晋级了线在天堂今世艺术中的表现技巧,成为虚幻艺术中的主要表现手法。康定斯基说:点静止,线内在李光,源于运动。那二种成分产生她们和睦语言的错落有致并置,那是语言难以到达的。删除了虚饰,捂住并收缩了这种语言的内在声音,授予画面以最精练和最确切的表现。纯粹的款式服务于丰硕、生动的内蕴。[1]在这根底上,美利坚联邦合众国架空表现主义波Locke等人再从当中国或扶桑的书艺中得出养分,将色彩、运动与线条融合,开垦了万分辽阔的办法新天地。以线为表现花招者在今世还恐怕有Cy Twombly,他得灵感于涂鸦,使其抽象表现的性子慢慢与波洛式的律动和严酷相差别。其灵活、书法式笔法颇与中黄炎子孙民共和国式的写画相神似。

华夏音乐家王璜生平昔以思想国画示人,但其多年来的游象连串小说的行文将写进行了纯粹化。非但遗弃了具体物象,也舍弃了意象。笔在纸上行,或如高古游丝,闲淡尊贵;或如尖锥画沙,艰涩枯劲;或如笔走龙蛇,轻盈飘逸。线条从物象描绘中开脱出来,或密集合体,或穿插游走。或加淡墨晕染,或加点墨造势。画面气韵生动,热火朝天。自此王璜生画风焕然一新,让观者目迷五色,慨而叹之之余,禁不住细构思:那豆蔻梢头美术风格的来头和价值。

作为线条的变成,则从顾恺之的高古游丝描,到吴道子的马蹄草条,渐渐将中中原人民共和国绘画艺术术样式起码50%的关切点引进到对于线条之美的求偶中。毛笔在纸上的按下、聊起,中锋所创设的平面上含蓄的厚度,以致侧锋的诚挚都改为中夏族民共和国画乐师生平不断推敲的学业。特别到了近代,吴昌硕的线条犹如金鼎,齐渭青老年的线条犹如佛祖,李可染更以积点成线成朴拙之态,无不是对线进行风华绝代追寻的印迹。这么些前辈的创造,给后人以启示,也少年老成律给子孙设置了难以高出的高墙。

只是游象种类与聊以自慰表现音乐大师的著述有着本质的例外。抽象主义美学家的线无论是冷静的几何方式依然充满激情的运动的结果,都与东格局的深思沉稳大异其趣,他们所表现的心坎也差别于中华夏族民共和国式的胸中有山水。王璜生的线率先是发源对中夏族民共和国守旧字画笔墨的深入认知,正如前文所述,它有其本身悠远而壁垒森严的思想;其次那些自由游走的线,源自于她和谐所专长行驶的大工笔山水画。正如殷双喜教师所提出的,其头脑能够追溯到二〇一〇-二〇〇八年画过的小树枝条,此中也尝尝了望梅止渴展现式的速度感和平运动动性。[2]

辽朝音乐家朱代珍润曾画有《浑沦图》。该画左方画有生龙活虎坡石虬松,枝干似龙爪。另加藤萝盘缠松干,游丝飘向空中,右画风姿浪漫圆形。画中的藤条、游丝、圆圈的画法与王璜生的游象连串作品中的线条风格有颇多相通之处,圆圈又和王璜生游象连串文章中的圆颇多暗合。这是巧合?依旧穿越时间和空间的任天由命?小编更唯命是听看似不常前面包车型大巴终将。细想起来,理由有二:一是国画线条本人就有独立的审美国特务专门的职业职员人士性。朱代珍润非不能够也,在当下语境下,是不为也。可是是透过《浑沦图》临时表现了线条独立的审美国特务工作人士职员性,这一表现因其不和时风的奇,的确引起了后世的颇多思疑,并将预计题写在了那张画上;二是王璜生的洪水横流文章主题素材游象,正暗合了朱代珍润《浑沦图》的标题浑沦和题跋:浑沦者,不方而圆,不圆而方。后天文地理生物者,无形而形存;先天文地理生物者,有形而形亡。意气风发翕一张,是岂有规矩之可量哉!。朱德润通过圆具体化了浑沦,王璜生便是游走在象之中,圆圈散开,弥漫,也是当然之事。

设若将对线以致中华夏族民共和国画的制造依旧凝聚在相纸、毛笔、水墨之中,还应该有新的大概啊?还会有超大或然将古人的笔墨经验,不是充任负担累赘而身为财富为小编所用吗?也许是每四个从业此道的美术师都要动脑筋的难题。当然也可如吴冠中相通将其十一分抛开,把来自西方的情势与构成设定为自家追求的指标,也不能不说是另开了一条新路。可是飞扬跋扈是便于的,合乎道是难的。后日正由于作威作福者多,狗续侯冠者多,由此不能判断者多。越发是有些研究跃入了以纯格局为表明方式的虚幻世界从今今后,因为缺乏了形象概念的束缚,更易日常令人失语。也因为虚无的半空中过大而摊平了其能够深深研读的厚度,日常不能够持久。那几个标题,也使超级多歌唱家的作品很像万花筒,初看起来波谲云诡,但再看下来,换汤不换药,异常快就令人恨恶了。

近五年创作的新型艺术体现出,王璜生就像是有心探究更极其的征途,对笔墨不再留恋了,对速度感的言情也没意思了,他笔头下的线显得出四个越来越纯粹和雅淡,似是达到了无笔墨的地步。那象征笔墨之线独立了,它不分明在要去追求气韵生动,也不必然要俊逸高雅。能够说,王璜生在游象和线象体系小说中做了二个品尝:给中国书法和绘画中的线以随机。线的任意折射了美术师的心气:泛若漂泊不定,虚而傲游;也似修禅者入定后所见:菩提本无树,明镜亦不是台,见到的只是圆觉后的十足和诸佛的得力。

理所必然,上边所说的原故是小编所做的维系,并不是王璜生模拟朱代珍润的真相。历史足以在现代表现,往往是惊人之上的萍水相逢,而非时间前后意义上的随行,那便是文化系统三番五次的奇怪之处。除了我所寻觅的美术历史上的符合,王璜生的小说和她和谐过去的创作有如何关联呢?

王璜生的游象种类小说是他跨过知老年,走过知天意,步向扬威耀武而不逾矩状态所进行的一场可控的激情实验。王璜生作为书法家、美术史读书人、争辩家、艺术管理者,借由她的学养与富有的经历,他自然深知艺术史,深知创建的危机、难点与关键点。他早已不是初露头角的青少年,改革之于他但是是历练后的渐变,而变革之于他可能就要有个别决绝之心了。游象类别文章中对金钱观、对造型如此的清淤可谓是决绝后的收获。不过,这种决绝在镜头上的显现更令人奇异。线条的粗细、深浅的起伏超小,他摈弃了承上启下带来的比较简单达到的音频之美;大器晚成组线条与另黄金时代组线条之间的明暗变化都不鲜明,他废弃了色度相比较的功能;他将创作锁定在长短之间,抛弃了色相的灿烂。王璜生放弃了如此多,他要怎么?那样的著述居然会时有产生对随便之后的担惊受怕,对有此外恐怕而发出无或者的疑心。

游象体系文章中线的墨色与粗细相间,前后叠压追逐,有着丰盛的等级次序感、节奏性和音乐性。将造型艺术与音乐相联系,也是今世方式感兴趣的天地,比方康定斯基以致撰文了生龙活虎多级的音乐术语为题的虚幻小说。在其《点线面》生机勃勃书中,他聊到:音乐的线是哪些?那是分明的,大好些个乐器都有生机勃勃种线的性状,差异的乐器的音高相对于线的粗细:小提琴、长笛和短笛发生风度翩翩种十二分细的线,大提琴和单簧管是黄金年代种略粗的线,由低音乐器演奏爆发的线则更进一层粗,平昔到双低音乐器或中号的低音音调。大家能够以为,在音乐中,线提供了表现共鸣的最大仓库。这里线就好像在描绘中所看见的那么明确以同风度翩翩短暂和独立的不二诀要表明着成效。[3]这段文字差相当的少有如量身定做地平等适合驾驭

在王璜生早先时期的世界种类文章中,越发在画画天时,写出的圆圈化的线条已经不仅仅现身。天上漂浮着的轻松的线条浑然黄金时代体,就算还与整幅画面相谐和,但已展现出单身的恐怕性。在清闲种类作品中,王璜生的文笔已经预示了近年来那批游象类别文章的产出。细看悠然文章,即便表现的是松柏怪枝,但笔墨已经大半脱离了所描写的物象,笔力刚劲,写笔者的特色已经活跃。随之,王璜生创作骑行象连串小说,也就留意料之中了。

王璜生自有她的定义与政策。首先是幸福,游象的物象最初源于他日前的一团真实世界中的电线,而引发出的图式则是幸福的变体。其次是守旧,那连绵不断、朝思暮想的游丝线条是对价值观的问好。因而,游象体系作品是从东方而来,而王璜生更期望借由此创设出朝气蓬勃种国际化的词汇。在视觉上,他希望和精炼的历史观实行个砍断,而且回到原点自己就是叁个将其国际化的进度,就就好像老母的Ma,那么些发声在国内外都是毫不解释的。那也是他所思索的哪些使中华水墨发生意气风发种越发国际化的言语,并非老在中原的语境里面往前拉动恐怕摄取西方的言语,而是径直就在叁个进一层国际的语言或语序里去思谋难题[1]。

游象和线象体系文章中的音乐性。那么,王璜生的创作听上去会是如何的?

与雷同国画背景的李华生做豆蔻梢头相比较,能够看出王璜生创作的愈来愈多特点。两者皆从观念国画创作进入了充饥画饼创作,并相通把传统国画的写进行了分离和纯粹化。不过李华生越来越多地将写格式化,仪式化,画面以横竖线组成的格子为特征。王璜生则将写行动化,生活化,画面中的线条鲜活奔放,生气盎然。

在交换中,王璜生提议她在信守他由儿时带给的笔墨武术,将笔的气韵通过笔尖注入到了相纸之中,这是基因,有世襲的情趣。他欢悦说:画这种画花招很累,要保全大器晚成种情景。其实,单纯的、不成形的线条是最难画的。黄宾虹的五笔中率先项即为平,用柔嫩的毛笔画平是第风流倜傥难点。由此,要达成在细微变化中求味的游丝之状,不止要有多年钻探的造诣,更一定要丰富的瞩目,用志不分,乃凝于神,方可完毕。但这种专心并非僵化,在中国绘画艺术术中还恐怕有一点正是重申了可控与不可控之间的快感与味道。那么些线条的深浅、粗细与游走路径也是在那时候的专擅与趋势上的垄断(monopoly卡塔尔之间游走的。王璜生还谈起,他完结再大的作品都以停放在桌子上或地上实现的。平着画照旧立着画,只怕可说是个人的习贯,但与此同有的时候间也传递出画者的来历。这几个细节表明着他当作中黄炎子孙民共和国画画大师的本源。

借使说,中中原人民共和国的音乐的主流为单声音乐,也即唯有三个节奏而从未其他独立或衬映性伴随的音乐。那么,中乐也是线性的,但就像是中国画中的笔墨的浓淡转换相近,中黄炎子孙民共和国守旧音乐也会使用婉转的装饰音,或是采取支声的招式,来使音乐的布局与色彩越来越助长。在净土自中世纪早先时期,大家不再满意于三个声部,而是潜心到差别的音同一时间发声或相对独立的节拍同一时间歌唱会获得特别丰裕和奇妙的音乐而不失和煦,于是渐渐产生了复调音乐。复调音乐以对位法将依次相对独立的旋律线和睦地组成在一块,相同的时间演奏。直至18世纪才由以柱式的和声为特色的主调音乐慢慢替代,但作为意气风发种表现手法,于今仍然会在编慕与著述中央银行使。

新世纪以来,抽象创作多显示出仪式化、格式化的扶助。在此样的语境下,王璜生新近创作的价值不容忽略。由于作品尺幅十分的大,再增多线条运动形式的特殊性,王璜生的写使肉体有更加大幅面地出席,具备了行走意义的股票总市值。那就使他在近日扩充了写的外延,扩大了写的内涵。若是联系到上文所说,写我是意气风发种生活情形,文化姿态,也就足以驾驭,何以王璜生除了美术师身份之外,仍旧一个人卓越的绘画馆馆长、有名的国际展览策划人。

那豆蔻梢头多元文章除缠绵的线条之外,其构图情势基本上是四周暗,核心亮,呈放射状,有如光明从天边而来,抑或吸着观众的眼神向远方而去。背景中时时晕开的彗星般的托尾,或许是对光线的成团以至对未知的查找。《游象连串5》将这生机勃勃感想呈现得特别足够。叠合的线与背景交织为大器晚成体,不禁想起屈平的《天问》最早的几句。曰遂古之初,哪个人传道之?上下未形,何由考之?冥瞢昭暗,什么人能极之,冯翼惟象,何以识之?明明暗暗,惟时何为?因而,王璜生的那生机勃勃雨后春笋小说当然犹如《游象连串25》那样游心于物之初的自然,但自己感觉更加多的是经过无形之大象,对相当多顶峰难题的心劲追问。这种追问,实质上是对道的关注与爱慕的抒发,如苏文忠所谓的道可致不可求,进而理解为求索之中的又生龙活虎层境界。

尽管音乐是在时间里流淌的线,那么在王璜生笔头下则是让线在画面上显现音乐般的流动。游象和线象连串中的相当多小说就如能够以分化的复调音乐情势來精通:在某个画面上,流动的线以下有淡墨渲染,似通奏低音,相通于复调早期格局之奥尔加农;有的档期的顺序特别丰富,背景明亮,似教堂中传来的多声部人声弥撒;有的似有平等主见不相同墨色和思路在不一样范畴上追逐呼应,恰似巴赫的赋格曲;也有些小说墨线、色块和金箔并用,与大型乐队所演奏之今世创作气质甚合,在画面上差不离能够听见多声部的张开和东方音乐的五声特点。创作于二零一三年的游象体系中的后生可畏幅相当的大的小说气势广阔,等级次序丰硕,有着取之不竭的阐述空间:线条的律动生机勃勃,似饿今日头条羊,又似烟雾弥漫,无坚不摧;近视之却有大大小小,大弦嘈嘈如急雨,小弦切切如私语。这里,每一条线像八个个独门吟唱的音频,不知从哪儿先导到哪儿截至,此中的拉长与档案的次序让本身耳中响起了Bach的《赋格的措施》。

据此,王璜生的写,更不唯有是贰个动作。

直面那批以线为主旨的文章,有三个不恐怕逃脱的纠葛,这么些线与波Locke的那多少个线,与吴冠中的那三个线到底有啥差距吗?波Locke的所谓抽象展现主义的线条越来越多地强调了行走中的偶发性,小说的生龙活虎体化在于对组合概念的把握。而吴冠中先生的线便是由此而来,嫁接入东方的藤萝,创建了她由西而东的词汇。王璜生的落脚点如前所说是由东方而来,他重申了作品中线条与生俱来的根源古板,如基因般附于旁人身的童子功,他自知作者手下的武功以致对笔墨的痛感也算不错,这么些东西是斩不断的,不过观念的惯性,表明的惯性如若能够被切断,那说不许是小编想做的。[2]不论传照旧变皆已经因,文章是果,而此时的果不过是下二个因,游象类别对于王璜生可是是又三遍的发端。

咱俩期望着王璜生创作出更加多通向自由之线,辅导大家进来艺术的自由王国。

刘礼宾 中央美术高校商量所教师,商酌家

吴响亮 香岛画院美术馆馆长

赵洲 德意志联邦共和国海德堡高校艺术史硕士,德意志海德堡科学院研讨员

2012年

2012年

二〇一二年10月三七日高海生德堡

Writing is Not Only an Action Along with the uprising of literati painting, when the relationship between writing of calligraphy and the drawing of painting was emphasized, the writing in painting became a more important issue gradually. Su Shi who promoted li terati painting has once said that poem and painting were essentially the same, both are works of the nature, fresh and clean, except for consideration in technique; there should also be concern for the expression of temperament as well as the artistic conception of poem and painting. Zhao Mengfu of Yuan Dynasty had made the former more clear and definite, he mentioned that stone and wood are just like writing strokes, and to depict bamboo, one should be familiar with the eight strokes skill in calligraphy. Then Zheng Banqiao in Qing Dynasty, and Zhao Zhiqian, Wu Changshuo, Qi Baishi of late Qing all practiced this view; their calligraphy style influenced their painting style to a large extent.

注释:

注释:

Writing and drawing tools are all brush, ink, paper and inkstone. Press the brush on the paper then calligraphy or paintings will show. At the very moment when the brush touch the paper, artists accomplishment as well as his personalities will be completely revealed in the traces left in this moment. We could even say that, it is just through the many years efforts made in the relationship between brushes and paper that calligrapher and artists constructed their own world of art. Therefore we could say that, writing is not only an action but also a kind of existence, especially a cultural posture.

[1]、[2]《自在之途王璜生访问录》,载于《中华儿女书法和绘画名人》,2013年第1期,第14页。

[1]瓦西里康定斯基:《点线面抽象艺术的底蕴》,新加坡人民摄影出版社,一九八九年,第90页。

Chinese painting artist Wang Huangsheng has always been showing his traditional Chinese painting, but his recent Motion/Imagination series has purified writing. He not only discarded specific physical appearances, but also the imagery. When his brush moves on paper, the brush strokes are elegant like ancient silk yarns, or powerful like traces of an awl on sand, or light and graceful like the flowing cloud and water. Lines are relieved from depicting material appearances; they are packed closely together or weaved together randomly. Or light ink is adopted while ink points are added to show the vigor. The picture thus gets a vivid and lively flavor. From then on, Wang Huangsheng took on a brand new painting style which made a feast for the eyes of viewers who would, be moved and touched, and cannot help pondering on the origin of this painting style and its value.

Wandering Ones Mind at the Very Beginning of Things: Wang Huangshengs Moving Visions Moving Visions series is his latest works. The viewers may feel lost where to begin telling though with thousands of words in mind, when facing those messy lines with unbroken ties of love. It reminds us of what Lao Zi (philosopher in the Spring and Autumn Period, founder of Taoism) had said, Who can the nature tell about Tao? Our sight it flies, our touch as well in this sense, nature in our sight and touch is the visualized embodiment of Tao. Corresponding to this series works, we can feel that at this moment, Wang Huangsheng have shaken off so many fetters that he can directly state his understanding of Tao.

[2]殷双喜:后雅兴:手迹与内心,载于《后雅兴王璜生的章程世界》,四川教育出版社,贰零壹壹年,第9-10页。

The artist Zhu Derun of Yuan Dynasty had ever painted an Integral Whole Picture. On this picture, an old twining pine tree was painted on the left with its branches look like dragons paw. And there was vine twining the pine trunk with its cirrus spreading into the sky in the shape of a circle. The painting skill of vine, cirrus, circles is quite similar with the style of lines in Wang Huangshengs Motion/Imagination series works while the circles are quite coinciding with the circle in this series of works. Is this coincidence? Or necessity crossing time and space? The author of this article prefers to believe the necessity behind the seemingly fortuity. Upon chewing, there are two reasons: one is that the lines of Chinese traditional painting have independent aesthetic characteristics in themselves. Zhu Derun was not incapable, but just didnt do that. He was merely showing the independent aesthetic characteristics of lines occasionally through his Integral Whole Picture and this show together with the oddness which was out of that time, indeed aroused quite a lot of speculation in the later generations and speculation was even scripted on this picture; the second is the title of this series of works-Moving Visions, has precisely coincided with Integral Whole in Zhu Deruns title and the postscript: The integral whole is either round or square. Those exist before the heaven and earth were separated were shapeless but a shape do exist; while those exist after the heaven and earth were separated they have a shape but the shape do not exist. Between folding and unfolding, how can there be any rules to measure it! Zhu Derun specified the integral whole with circle, while Wang Huangsheng is wandering in imagination with a loose circle spreading out, which is also natural.

The Chinese art has been simplifying objects, to seek change in the meaning of objects, reluctant to jump the fence of image concept. Its like what Qi Baishi described as between similarity and non-similarity. He can even draw a fish with three strokes, with two black points as eyes and one light ink as body, but with the lotus leaves as context, we can still figure out thats fish in the water. Though Chinese painting and calligraphy put great emphasis on the changing beauty of lines, they still require the attachment of objects and words, and therefore not pure concept of form.

[3]瓦西里康定斯基:《点线面抽象艺术的底子》,香港人民水墨画出版社,壹玖捌捌年,第76页。

Certainly, the origin stated above is an association made by the author, rather than a fact that Wang Huangsheng had imitated Zhu Derun. When history can be represented in contemporary era, it is often the coincidence on high level, rather than following in the meaning of time, which is precisely the wonder in the cultural context. Except for this corresponding with art history found out by the author, what other relationships are there between Wang Huangshengs creation and his formal art?

As the gradual progress of lines, from the Ancient silk line of Gu Kaizhi to Orchid leave line of Wu Daozi, at least 50% attention to Chinese art form have been devoted to the pursuit of the beauty of lines. The pressing down and lifting up of the writing brush on paper, the hidden depth on the surface constructed by central brush, and the forthrightness of side brush, all became the exercise the Chinese painters keep practicing their whole life. In the modern times, the lines from Wu Changshuo are like golden pot, in Qi Baishis late years, the lines are like immortals, and Li Kerans plain and clumsy forms with linking dots to from lines, they all left the traces of pursuing the perfected use of lines. The predecessors creations left us inspirations as well as insurmountable high walls.

The Lines to Freedom: Ink Painting Series Moving Visions and Lines Visions The experimental works by Wang Huangsheng since recent years--the series of MovingVisions and LinesVisions, show his exploring and probing on point, line and plane such elements in the traditional Chinese ink painting, of which the repeated experiments and exploration on lines are especially noteworthy. Originated from a family with long tradition of Chinese painting and trained professionally in art academy, after completing a great amount of imposing and delicate ink paintings, the experienced artist begins to enjoy drawing circles that seemingly can be done by every child. What is he intended to do?

In Wang Huangshengs early series of works titled Heaven and Earth, especially when depicting the Earth, the round lines written down had appeared frequently. The free lines floating in the heaven are naturally integrated and although still looks harmonious with the whole picture, but has already shown independent possibility. In the Carefree series, Wang Huangshengs brush strokes have already foretold the recent series titled Moving Visions. Gazing at the Carefree artwork, although the represented things are pines and their twining branches, yet the brush and ink have already almost get rid of the depicted objects and the strokes are very powerful; the characteristics of writing itself is quite vivid. Therefore, the Moving Visions series of works were created subsequently by Wang Huangsheng is reasonable.

If the creations of line and even Chinese painting are still confined to Chinese art paper, writing brush and ink, will there be new possibilities? Can we benefit from our ancestors brush and ink experience as resources instead of burdens? Im afraid those are the questions that every engaged artist should consider about. Surely, we can properly desert them like Wu Guanzhong, and set forms and constructions originated from the west as our pursuing goals, which is actually a road. Its easy to do as one pleases, but its hard to conform to standards. Currently, as a result of so many people who do whatever they want and mix the genuine with the fictitious, there are so many works that are hard to judge. In particular, some explorations entered the abstract world adopting pure form as the only expression method, without constrain of image concept, you would find them disappointing. The way too large abstract space hindered the depth they can reach and often unendurable. All these problems made many artists works like a phantoscope, ever-changing at first, but you would find the central theme remains the same and get bored easily.

As a means of artistic expression, lines have an outstanding status in fine arts, not only in Chinese art, but also in the whole oriental world from India to Japan. To a certain extent the ancient Chinese art of painting and calligraphy could be regarded as the art of lines. By means of flowing and dynamic lines Chinese painters depicted the contours of figures and objects, thus lines as the main technique of moulding and expressing in Chinese painting have been continuing for more than two thousand years. Ink brushes used by the Chinese endow the lines with power of expression and liveliness incomparable with other painting tools, and the esteeming of lines has been almost the core content in traditional Chinese painting - to paint (the lines) as if they have bones claimed by Xie He (479-502) belongs to one of the most important principles. However, either lines or techniques of ink brushes still remain on the level of tools, even if they are highly evaluated. To paint (the lines) as if they have bones is to reach the goal of liveliness, or even to help people to accept the Confucian values.

Comparing with Li Huasheng, another Chinese traditional painter, we could found out more features belong to Wang Huangsheng in his creation. Both of them entered abstract art creation from traditional Chinese painting creation and both abstracted and purified the writing in traditional Chinese painting. However, Li Huasheng is more formalize and ritualized in writing, with grids composed by horizontal and vertical lines on the picture as his feature. While Wang Huangsheng has made writing more like an action and life, with lines in his paintings vivid, wild, lively and vibrant.

The Moving Visions series was created in his 50s, when he knows the will of heaven and does as he pleases without going beyond the law and its a controllable passion experiment. As a painter, scholar in art history, critics and art manager, with his learning, cultivation and rich experience, he knows well about art history and the risks, difficult points and key points in creation. He is no longer a green hand youth, for him, reform is just the gradual change after refinement, but revolution, requires the resolution. The clarification of tradition and modeling in the Moving Visions series are the results of being resolute. However, this kind of resolution is more surprising when shown in pictures. With little difference in width and shade of lines, he gave up the rhythmic beauty that can relatively easy get with opening, developing, changing and concluding (the four steps of Chinese regulated classic writing); with little change in the light and shade of different groups of lines, he gave up the effects of chrominance comparison; using only black and white, he gave up the splendid colors. What is he seeking after giving up so much? Such works may even generate dread after being liberalized, and plenty doubts about the any possible possibility.

In Europe the important meaning of lines as the instrument of expression has not been recognized until the period of Romanticism. But since the import of oriental art (especially Ukyo-e) into Europe in the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of modernism, the attitude of the western artists towards the lines has been changed drastically. In Point and Line to Plane Kandinsky has tried to connect the lines and colours with the feelings of human beings, and thus enhanced the potentials of lines in the modern art to a significant means of expression in the abstract art. According to Kandinsky, Point - rest. Line - inwardly animated tension created by movement. The two elements - their intermingling and their combinations develop their own language which cannot be attained with words. The exclusion of trimmings, which hush and obscure the inner sound of this message, lends the greatest brevity and precision to pictorial expressions. The pure form places itself at the disposal of the living content.[1]On that basis and drawn additional nutrition from the art of calligraphy in China or Japan, the American Abstract Expressionist like Jason Pollock integrated colour, action and lines, and thus opened a new perspective of modern art. In contemporary period time the artist Cy Twombly (1928-2011), who used lines inspired by graffiti, differentiated his works from the dynamics and wildness of Pollock, and developed his sensitive and calligraphically strokes resembling the way of writing the paintings in a Chinese manner. However, the series of Moving Visions is different essentially from the works by the Abstract Expressionists, whose lines, either in a cool geographical manner or as a result of passionate action, deviate fundamentally from the meditational characteristics in the oriental culture, nor could their conveyed spirits be comparable with the Chinese temperament of having landscape with ones mind. Wangs lines originate on one hand from his deep consideration on the strokes of brushes in the traditional Chinese paintings and calligraphy, as stated above that they are rooted in their own long and deep tradition; on the other hand those roaming lines are unfettered from his own blossom-bird paintings that he has mastered and brought forth in an impressive manner. As Yin Shuangxi has pointed out, the clue of the lines can be traced back to the branches and twigs painted during 2008 to 2009, in which the speed and movement in an abstract expressionistic manner has been experimented. [2]

Entering the new century, the trend of being ritualized and formalized in abstract art creation has been shown(there was a concentrated reflection in the two exhibitions of Maximalism and Beads and Brush Strokes ). In such a context, the value of Wang Huangshengs recent works can not be neglected. Because the dimension of these works are large, and the specialty of the action way of lines, Wang Huangshengs writing has involved the body into creation to a much larger (than in the earlier works) extent, and took on the value of action meaning. Thus has made him explore the denotation and add the connotation of writing. If we associate the stated above that writing is in itself a kind of survival condition and cultural posture, we could well understand why Wang Huangsheng could be an artist as well as an outstanding art museum director as well as international curator with high reputation.

Wang Huangsheng has his own concepts and tactics. First of all, its nature. The objects in the Moving Visions series first originated in a lump of electric wires in the real world before his eyes and the schema brought about are the variant of nature. Secondly, its tradition. The extending and winding lines are tribute paid to tradition. Therefore, Moving Visions series has its roots in the orient, and Wang Huangsheng hopes to create an internationalized vocabulary through it. In the visual aspect, he hopes to have a chop off with simple tradition, and return to the original point, which itself is an internationalization process. For instance, the pronunciation Ma of mother, requires no explanation within the whole world. This is what he is thinking about, how to make Chinese ink generate a more internationalized language, and directly to think questions in a more internationalized language or word order instead of just pushing forward or absorbing western language in the Chinese context. [1]

The works since recent two year show that Wang Huangshen is interested to explore new directions, i.e. he does not stick to the enjoyment of strokes of brushes and thus slow the brushes down. He uses his lines to indicate his inner purity and calmness, with which he tries to reach the goal of the emptiness of brush strokes. That means the lines of brush strokes become independent, and since then they do not strike for liveliness of figures or objects, nor have they to be proficient or elegant. In that sense, we can say, that Wang has made an attempt in his new series: to liberate the lines from Chinese paintings and calligraphies. The freedom of lines reflects that of the artist - floating as a boat without lasso into the infinite emptiness, also similar to the vision after the enlightenment - what one sees is only the purity and perfectness.

Therefore, Wang Huangshengs writing, is far more than an action.

During our conversation, Wang Huangsheng pointed out that he has been sticking to the ink and brush skill acquired since his childhood, injecting the lingering charm of brush to the rice paper through brush tip, which is a genetic and inheritable interest. He said jokingly: It is easy to get tired when drawing those kinds of paintings, for you have to keep a certain state. In fact, the pure and unchanging lines are the hardest to draw. The first item in the five strokes put forward by Huang Binhong is flat, drawing flat lines being the most difficult thing to do with soft Chinese writing brush. Therefore, to achieve the state of silk line, not only years of hard practice are required, but also particular concentration. It can only be completed with absolute concentration. However, the concentration mentioned doesnt mean rigidity. The pleasure and taste between something controllable and uncontrollable is stressed in Chinese painting art. The shade and width of the lines and how the lines go are also decided between immediate casualty and the control of trend. He also said that he completes works with them set level on the desk or earth no matter how large the dimension is. Drawing on level set paper or hanging paper maybe can be regarded as personal habits, but also revealed the drawers origin. The details told the origin of him as a Chinese painter.

The lines in the series of MovingVisions vary in terms of ink colour, fineness, direction, and they chase one after another in multiple layers, rhythm and musicality. Associating fine arts and music has been an interesting topic to the modern artists, for instance Kandinsky has given several works with musical terms as titles. In his Point and Line to Plane he wrote, What a musical line is, is well known. Most musical instruments are of a linear character. The pitch of the various instruments corresponds to the width of the line: a very fine line represents the sound produced by the violin, flute, piccolo; a somewhat thicker line represents the tone of the viola, clarinet; and the lines become more broad via the deep- toned instruments, finally culminating in the broadest line representing the deepest tones produced by the bass-viol or the tuba. ...... It can be asserted that in music the line supplies the greatest means of expression. It manifests itself here in time and space just as it does in painting. [3]That passage adapt itself well to the musicality in the lines by Wangs new series. So, how would Wangs works sound like?

Liu Libin Lecturer of China Central Academy of Fine Arts, Critic

Besides moving lines, in this series, the construction pattern is basically dark around the four sides with light center, as if the light comes from afar, or attracting the viewers to view the distant place. The comet-like smudged tailing in the background are probably the gathering of light and search of the unknown. The Moving Visions series No. 5 more fully presented this feeling, overlying lines mingled together with background, you cannot help but think of the opening sentences of Inquiry of Heaven written by Qu Yuan. To talk about the very beginning of the world, who passed on the Tao? Without any shape in heaven and earth, from who could we get things approved? In the dense darkness, who could gone to the end of it, as emptiness was the only thing in the universe, how could we know it? the day is bright and the night is dark, whats the reason? therefore, this series of works surely have the natural and unrestrained state of wandering ones mind at the very beginning of things like the Moving Visions series No. 25, in my perspective, however, they are more about the rational inquiry of many ultimate questions through greatest image of no shape, which in essence, is expression of the attention paid to and respect of Dao. Its like Dao can be achieved but not pursued proposed by Su Dongpo, and can be further understood as another state of the inquiry.

With normally one single melody in centre, the mainstream of Chinese music is monophonic and thus also linear. But similar to the shading and fineness of the brush strokes, Chinese music has various techniques like decorations and heterophony to enrich the texture, colour and construction. In Europe since the late Middle Ages musician were not satisfied with one musical part any longer, and rather they noticed that simultaneous sounding of different notes or playing of independent melodies in parallel could be enriched and gracious without loosing their harmony, thus polyphonic music has been gradually developed. By means of counterpoint various independent melodies are integrated harmoniously. Until the 18th century the polyphonic music has been systematically replaced by tonal music, while as musical technique polyphony is still in use even today.

2012

There is an unavoidable doubt when confronting these works featuring lines as the main body. Whats the difference between these lines and those of the Pollocks and Wu Guanzhongs? The so called abstract expressionism lines of Pollock put more stress on the sporadic feature in actions, and the entirety of works lie in the grasp of construction concepts. For Mr. Wu Guanzhong, thats exactly where his lines come from, grafted upon the oriental branches, and formed the vocabulary linking the west to east. Like what we have pointed out, the starting point for Wang Huangsheng is from the east. He emphasized the tradition born with the lines, the skill attained as a kid attached to him like genes. He knows well that I have fairly good skills and have pretty good sense about brush and ink, and these things cannot be chopped off, but if the inertia of mentality and expression can be chopped off, thats what Id like to do. [2] Whether inherit or change, they are all causes, the works are results, and the result can turn out to be another cause. Moving Visions series is just a new beginning for Wang Huangsheng.

If music melodies could be understood as the moving lines, the lines under the brushes of Wang Huangsheng would show the musical moving of lines on paper. Interestingly, many works in the new series can interpreted as various forms of polyphonic music: those with light-coloured ink under floating lines remind the early form of polyphony organum with basso continuo; those with clear multiple layers and bright background resemble a vocal mass from the Renaissance period; those with seemingly similar motives and various colours or strokes chasing on different layers mirror the fugues of Johann Sebastian Bach; and those which amalgamate ink lines, colour areas and gold foils appear in accordance with the contemporary works played by large orchestra as if one could hear the procession of numerous parts and pentatonic characteristics of the oriental music. The work No.26 in the series of Motion Visions finished in 2011 has a marvellous perspective and breath-taking rich texture. The dynamics of the lines are so lively like a tiger assaulting from a mountain slope, or formidable gigantic waves. If one come closer, one would feel the lines with various weight and speed, like the thick strings loudly thrummed like the pattering rain; the fine strings softly tinkled in murmuring strain. Here, each line is similar to an independently singing melody without knowing where it begins and ends, und the richness and multiple layers echo in my ears Bachs Die Kunst der Fuge.

Wu Hongliang Director of Art Museum of Beijing Fine Art Academy

We expect that Wang Huangsheng could create more lines to freedom, leading us into theKingdom of Freedom of Art.

2012

Zhao Zhou PhD in art history of Heidelberg University, Researcher of Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities

Notes: [1] [2] The Road of Freedom--the interview of Wang Huangsheng, published in China People Famous Calligraphers and Painters, 2012,1 p.14.

Heidelberg, Apr. 15, 2013

Notes: [1] Wassily Kandinsky, Point and Line to Plane, New York: The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, 1947. p. 112. [2] Yin Shuanxi, Post Refined Joy: Traces of Hand and Heart, in Wang Huangsheng ed., Post Refined Joy: Wang Huangshengs World of Art, Shijiazhuang: Hebei jiaoyu chubanshe, 2012, p. 9-10. [3] Wassily Kandinsky, Point and Line to Plane, New York: The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, 1947.p. 88-89.

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